"""
Large-Sample Data
=================
"""
# %%
# Introduction
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
#
# .. image:: ../../Tutorial/figure/large-sample.png
#
# A large sample size leads to a large range of possible support sizes which adds to the computational burdon.
# The computational tip here is to use the golden-section searching to avoid support size enumeration.
# %%
# A motivated observation
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# Here we generate a simple example under linear model via ``make_glm_data``.
from time import time
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from abess.datasets import make_glm_data
from abess.linear import LinearRegression
np.random.seed(0)
data = make_glm_data(n=100, p=20, k=5, family='gaussian')
ic = np.zeros(21)
for sz in range(21):
model = LinearRegression(support_size=[sz], ic_type='ebic')
model.fit(data.x, data.y)
ic[sz] = model.ic_
print("lowest point: ", np.argmin(ic))
# %%
# The generated data contains 100 observations with 20 predictors,
# while 5 of them are useful (has non-zero coefficients).
# Uses extended Bayesian information criterion (EBIC), the ``abess`` successfully detect the true support size.
#
# We go further and take a look on the support size versus EBIC returned
# by ``LinearRegression`` in ``abess.linear``.
# %%
plt.plot(ic, 'o-')
plt.xlabel('support size')
plt.ylabel('EBIC')
plt.title('Model Selection via EBIC')
plt.show()
# %%
# From the figure, we can find that
# the curve should is a strictly unimodal function achieving minimum at the true subset size,
# where ``support_size = 5`` is the lowest point.
#
# Motivated by this observation, we consider a golden-section search technique to determine the optimal support size
# associated with the minimum EBIC.
#
# .. image:: ../../Tutorial/figure/goldenSection.png
#
# Compare to the sequential searching, the golden section is much faster because it skip some support sizes which are likely to be a non-optimal one.
# Precisely, searching the optimal support size one by one from a candidate set with :math:`O(s_{max})` complexity,
# **golden-section** reduce the time complexity to :math:`O(\ln(s_{max}))`, giving a significant computational improvement.
#
# %%
# Usage: golden-section
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# In ``abess`` package, golden-section technique can be easily formed like:
model = LinearRegression(path_type='gs', s_min=0, s_max=20)
model.fit(data.x, data.y)
print("real coef:\n", np.nonzero(data.coef_)[0])
print("predicted coef:\n", np.nonzero(model.coef_)[0])
# %%
#
# where ``path_type = 'gs'`` means using golden-section rather than search the support size one-by-one.
# ``s_min`` and ``s_max`` indicates the left and right bound of range of the support size.
# Note that in golden-section searching, we should not give ``support_size``, which is only useful for sequential strategy.
#
# The output of golden-section strategy suggests the optimal model size is accurately detected.
#
# %%
# Golden-section v.s. Sequential-searching: runtime comparison
# ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
# In this part, we perform a runtime comparison experiment to demonstrate the speed gain brought by golden-section.
#
t1 = time()
model = LinearRegression(support_size=range(21))
model.fit(data.x, data.y)
print("sequential time: ", time() - t1)
t2 = time()
model = LinearRegression(path_type='gs', s_min=0, s_max=20)
model.fit(data.x, data.y)
print("golden-section time: ", time() - t2)
# %%
# The golden-section runs much faster than sequential method.
# The speed gain would be enlarged when the range of support size is larger.
###############################################################################
#
# The ``abess`` R package also supports golden-section.
# For R tutorial, please view
# https://abess-team.github.io/abess/articles/v09-fasterSetting.html.
#
# sphinx_gallery_thumbnail_path = 'Tutorial/figure/large-sample.png'
#